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Understanding the Seven Core Issues in Adoption: Identity



I'm going to do a seven part series on the blog and the Original Origins podcast discussing each of the "Seven Core Issues in Adoption". In this article, I'm going to be focusing on identity.


The "Seven Core Issues in Adoption" framework, developed by adoption expert and therapist Sharon Kaplan Roszia, highlights the key psychological and emotional challenges that adoptees and their families may encounter. These core issues provide a framework for understanding the complexities of adoption and guide individuals in navigating their adoption journey. The seven core issues are as follows:


  1. Loss: Adoption involves multiple layers of loss, including the loss of biological family, cultural heritage, and genetic connections. Adoptees may experience grief and a sense of loss throughout their lives, requiring support and understanding to process these emotions effectively.

  2. Rejection: Adoptees may struggle with feelings of rejection, stemming from the fact that they were placed for adoption. Even if adoption was the best decision for their well-being, the knowledge of being "given up" can lead to internalized feelings of unworthiness and questioning of their value.

  3. Identity: Adoptees often grapple with questions of identity formation. They may seek to understand their genetic background, cultural heritage, and personal identity within the context of their adoptive family. The search for identity can be a lifelong process involving exploration, self-reflection, and integration of various aspects of their identity.

  4. Intimacy: Adoption can impact an individual's ability to form and maintain healthy, trusting relationships. Adoptees may struggle with attachment, vulnerability, and fear of abandonment due to early life experiences. Nurturing secure and supportive relationships is crucial to addressing these challenges.

  5. Control: Adoption involves a loss of control, as adoptees have no say in the decision-making process that led to their adoption. This lack of control can manifest in issues related to autonomy, trust, and the need for stability. Adoptees may struggle with a fear of being abandoned or losing control over their lives.

  6. Guilt and Shame: Adoptees may experience feelings of guilt and shame related to their adoption. They may feel guilty for having questions or curiosity about their birth family, or they may carry a sense of shame about being different from their adoptive family. Addressing these emotions is vital for healing and self-acceptance.

  7. Intergenerational Issues: Adoption can have a ripple effect on future generations within the adoptive family. Adoptees may struggle with their role in the family and their connection to biological and adoptive relatives. Understanding and navigating intergenerational dynamics can help address complex family relationships and foster healthy connections.

Not all adoptees will experience these core issues in the same way or to the same degree. Each individual's adoption experience is unique, and the seven core issues serve as a guide to better understand and support adoptees and their families as they navigate their adoption journey and address the challenges that arise.


Adoption can have a profound impact on a person's identity, influencing various aspects of their sense of self, belonging, and understanding of their place in the world. Here are some ways in which adoption can affect identity:


  • Identity Formation:

    • Sense of Self: Adoptees may grapple with questions about their origins, genetic identity, and familial connections. The search for self-identity can be complex as they navigate between their adoptive family's culture and their birth culture.

    • Identity Exploration: Adoptees may explore their identity through various means, such as searching for their birth parents, learning about their cultural heritage, or connecting with other adoptees. This exploration can shape their sense of self.

  • Attachment and Relationships:

    • Attachment Issues: Some adoptees may experience attachment challenges, stemming from early experiences with separation and loss. This can impact their ability to form secure attachments in relationships.

    • Family Dynamics: Adoptees often have two sets of families—the adoptive family and, potentially, the birth family. Negotiating relationships with both sets of families can influence their identity and sense of belonging.

  • Cultural Identity:

    • Cultural Awareness: Transracial or transcultural adoption can raise questions about cultural identity. Adoptees may navigate between the culture of their adoptive family and that of their birth culture, contributing to a unique blend of cultural influences.

    • Cultural Exploration: Some adoptees may actively seek to explore and connect with their birth culture, language, and traditions to build a more comprehensive understanding of their identity.

  • Emotional Well-being:

    • Identity Confusion: Adoptees may experience identity confusion, especially if they feel torn between conflicting loyalties or cultural influences. Understanding and reconciling these aspects of their identity can be a lifelong process.

    • Self-Esteem: Positive experiences, supportive environments, and open communication about adoption can contribute to healthy self-esteem. Conversely, negative experiences or a lack of understanding may impact self-worth.

  • Social Perception and Stigma:

    • Public Perception: Adoptees may encounter stereotypes or misconceptions about adoption from society. This external perception can influence how they perceive themselves and their place in the world.

    • Stigma: Negative societal attitudes toward adoption, if present, can contribute to feelings of stigma or shame, affecting an adoptee's self-perception.

It's important to note that the impact of adoption on identity is highly individualized. Each adoptee's experience is unique, influenced by factors such as the age of adoption, the quality of relationships within both adoptive and birth families, and the societal context in which the adoption occurs. Professional support, open communication, and a supportive environment can play crucial roles in helping adoptees navigate and develop a positive sense of identity.


Identity is crucial for adoptees for several reasons:


1. Sense of Belonging: Identity provides a sense of belonging and connection to one's past, present, and future. Adoptees may feel disconnected or rootless without a strong sense of identity, particularly if they lack information about their biological family or cultural heritage.


2. Self-Understanding: Developing a strong sense of identity helps individuals understand who they are, including their strengths, weaknesses, values, and beliefs. For adoptees, this process can be complex as they navigate questions about their genetic background, family history, and cultural roots.


3. Psychological Well-being: A solid identity foundation is linked to better psychological well-being and resilience. Adoptees who have a clear understanding of their identity tend to have higher self-esteem and a greater ability to cope with life's challenges.


4. Integration of Identities: Adoptees often navigate multiple identities, including their adoptive family identity and their own unique identity. Balancing these identities and integrating different aspects of oneself can be challenging but ultimately enriching.


5. Cultural Connection: For transracial or transnational adoptees, identity is especially important for maintaining a connection to their cultural heritage. Understanding and embracing their cultural background can help adoptees develop a strong sense of identity and belonging within their broader cultural community.


6. Relationships: Identity impacts how individuals relate to others and form relationships. Adoptees may struggle with questions about their origins and may seek to establish connections with biological family members to better understand themselves and their place in the world.


7. Legal and Medical Considerations: Identity is also important for practical reasons, such as accessing medical history or legal documentation. Knowing one's genetic background can be critical for making informed decisions about healthcare, while legal identity documents are necessary for various aspects of life, including education, employment, and travel.


Overall, identity is a fundamental aspect of human development, and for adoptees, it plays a significant role in shaping their sense of self and how they navigate the world around them.

Exploring identity can be a complex and deeply personal journey for adoptees. Here are several ways they can embark on this exploration:


1. Learn About Their Adoption Story: Understanding the circumstances surrounding their adoption can provide valuable insight into their identity. Adoptees can ask their adoptive parents, adoption agency, or other relevant parties for information about their adoption, such as the reasons behind it and any details about their biological family.


2. Connect with Biological Family: Some adoptees may choose to search for and establish connections with their biological family members. This can provide opportunities to learn more about their genetic background, family history, and cultural heritage. Adoptees can utilize various resources, such as adoption registries, DNA testing services, and social media, to initiate contact with biological relatives.


3. Explore Cultural Heritage: For transracial or transnational adoptees, exploring their cultural heritage can be an important aspect of identity exploration. Adoptees can engage in activities such as learning the language, participating in cultural celebrations, and connecting with others from their cultural community.


4. Seek Therapy or Support Groups: Therapy or support groups specifically for adoptees can provide a safe space for processing feelings related to identity and adoption. Adoptees can explore their thoughts, emotions, and experiences with others who understand their unique perspective.


5. Reflect on Personal Values and Beliefs: Adoptees can engage in introspection to identify their personal values, beliefs, and interests. Reflecting on what matters most to them can help clarify their identity and guide their choices and actions.


6. Express Creativity: Engaging in creative outlets, such as writing, art, music, or dance, can be a therapeutic way for adoptees to explore and express their identity. Creative expression allows adoptees to channel their emotions and experiences into meaningful forms of self-expression.


8. Embrace Both Adoptive and Biological Identities: Adoptees may navigate multiple identities, including their adoptive family identity and their own unique identity. Embracing both aspects of their identity can help adoptees integrate different parts of themselves and cultivate a sense of wholeness.


Overall, exploring identity is a deeply personal journey that requires self-reflection, courage, and openness to new experiences. Adoptees may find that their identity evolves over time as they continue to learn, grow, and embrace their unique story.


Supporting adoptees as they explore their identity requires empathy, understanding, and a willingness to listen. Here are some ways to offer support:


1. Create a Safe and Open Environment: Encourage adoptees to express their thoughts, feelings, and questions about their identity without fear of judgment. Provide a safe and non-judgmental space for them to explore their emotions and experiences.


2. Listen Actively: Take the time to actively listen to adoptees as they share their thoughts and feelings about their adoption and identity. Validate their experiences and emotions, and avoid offering unsolicited advice or judgments.


3. Respect Their Journey: Recognize that each adoptee's journey of identity exploration is unique and may unfold at their own pace. Respect their boundaries and decisions regarding how they choose to explore their identity.


4. Provide Access to Resources: Offer access to resources such as books, articles, support groups, and therapy services that can support adoptees in their identity exploration journey. Help them connect with other adoptees or individuals who share similar experiences.


5. Encourage Self-Reflection: Encourage adoptees to engage in self-reflection and introspection to explore their values, beliefs, and personal identity. Ask open-ended questions that encourage them to reflect on their experiences and perspectives.


6. Support Cultural Exploration: If relevant, support adoptees in exploring their cultural heritage and identity. Encourage participation in cultural activities, learning about their cultural background, and connecting with others from their cultural community.


7. Offer Unconditional Love and Acceptance: Show adoptees unconditional love, acceptance, and support as they navigate the complexities of identity exploration. Remind them that their worth and value are not defined by their adoption or identity.


8. Be Patient and Understanding: Understand that identity exploration can be a lifelong journey with ups and downs. Be patient and supportive as adoptees navigate the challenges and uncertainties that may arise along the way.


9. Seek Professional Support if Needed: If adoptees are struggling with identity issues or need additional support, encourage them to seek professional help from therapists, counselors, or adoption specialists who have experience working with adoptees.


10. Educate Yourself: Take the time to educate yourself about adoption-related issues, identity development, and cultural diversity. Understanding the unique challenges and experiences faced by adoptees can help you provide more effective support.


By offering empathy, understanding, and support, you can help adoptees feel empowered to explore their identity and navigate the complexities of their adoption journey.


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